Nelson County is governed by a Board of Supervisors, with members elected from each of five districts. Each year, the board elects a chair and vice chair. Public meetings, which may include advertised public hearings, are held on the second Tuesday and fourth Thursday of each month. The Board of Supervisors hires a County Administrator to carry out the day-to-day business of the county.

Elected county officers, or Constitutional Officers, include the Clerk of the Circuit Court, Commissioner of the Revenue, Commonwealth’s Attorney, Sheriff and Treasurer. Elections for these officers are every fourth year.

The county supports an excellent public school system for county residents. School board members from each district are elected for four-year terms, and a superintendent and staff oversee operations and curriculum of the four county schools.